Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells. They play an important role in initiation and regulation of the cellular immune response. Maturation of dendritic cells is achieved by inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF), or pathogen associated molecular patterns (e.g. bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). This protocol can be used to study the in vitro efficacy of nanoparticle-based vaccine formulations. In addition, it can also be usedto assess the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations to dendritic cells, and the nano particle effects on DC maturation in response to traditional inflammatory stimuli such as endotoxin.