The purpose of this protocol is to understand the propensity of nanomaterials to induce mitochondrial damage as assessed by change in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔФm). Alteration in mitochondrial physiology is commonly linked with apoptotic cell death. Under stressed conditions, the mitochondrial permeability transition pores open, leading to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. The changes in ΔФm further activates various signaling cascades leading to cytochrome C release, ATP depletion and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death via either necrosis or apoptosis. The combination of mitochondrial membrane potential loss and mitochondrial ROS lead to organelle specific toxicity that ultimately cause cell death.