INFO
Indicator : Researchers in R&D (per million people) (People)
Description : Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.
Source : The World Bank

Researchers in R&D (per million people) (People)

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
1 Denmark 4,621 4,845 5,201 5,302 5,519 6,497 6,660 6,744 7,018 7,143 7,071 7,311 7,528 7,847 7,925 8,066
2 South Korea 3,244 3,336 3,777 4,175 4,604 4,868 5,001 5,380 5,803 6,304 6,393 6,826 7,013 7,086 7,498 7,980
3 Sweden 5,393 5,434 6,091 6,133 5,005 5,443 5,085 5,256 5,145 5,164 6,674 6,876 6,834 7,155 7,383 7,536
4 Finland 8,008 7,846 7,545 7,673 7,373 7,692 7,649 7,717 7,422 7,474 7,207 7,009 6,845 6,531 6,722 6,861
5 Norway 4,507 4,504 4,584 4,838 5,163 5,360 5,439 5,408 5,502 5,553 5,574 5,686 5,891 6,078 6,350 6,467
6 Austria 3,171 3,457 3,531 3,816 4,142 4,146 4,359 4,390 4,669 4,725 4,948 5,019 5,224 5,388 5,733
7 Netherlands 2,714 2,983 2,930 3,241 3,101 3,071 2,833 3,229 3,664 4,361 4,552 4,513 4,673 4,777 4,887 5,605
8 Japan 5,170 5,176 5,360 5,387 5,378 5,158 5,148 5,153 5,110 5,033 5,147 5,328 5,173 5,209 5,304 5,331
9 Ireland 2,503 2,695 2,756 2,835 2,893 3,237 3,113 3,070 3,326 4,854 5,136 5,304 5,271 5,178 5,401 5,243
10 Germany 3,261 3,274 3,350 3,452 3,597 3,752 3,941 4,078 4,189 4,352 4,367 4,321 4,744 4,862 5,077 5,212
11 Belgium 3,001 3,128 3,138 3,281 3,393 3,412 3,522 3,736 3,876 4,113 4,156 4,529 4,711 4,781 4,730 5,023
12 Luxembourg 4,367 4,504 4,864 4,412 4,636 4,716 4,829 5,145 5,451 4,352 4,614 4,741 4,480 4,668 4,960 4,942
13 Slovenia 1,893 2,017 2,631 2,920 3,098 3,463 3,645 3,753 4,277 4,317 4,220 4,147 3,814 3,914 4,479 4,855
14 France 3,203 3,340 3,307 3,418 3,580 3,654 3,741 3,868 3,942 4,073 4,155 4,234 4,307 4,415 4,561 4,715
15 UK 3,635 3,823 4,129 4,188 4,132 4,084 4,116 4,091 3,926 3,970 4,119 4,228 4,320 4,358 4,341 4,603
16 Portugal 1,934 1,969 2,016 2,344 2,671 3,820 3,761 3,923 4,168 4,037 3,611 3,662 3,730 4,005 4,368 4,538
17 European Union 3,130 3,252 3,332 3,387 3,532 3,631 3,840 3,994
18 Czech Republic 1,550 1,598 2,362 2,557 2,699 2,865 2,749 2,782 2,904 3,139 3,237 3,403 3,592 3,516 3,682 3,863
19 Estonia 2,232 2,498 2,457 2,603 2,745 2,970 3,229 3,061 3,398 3,463 3,341 3,284 3,183 3,295 3,543 3,755
20 Greece 1,407 1,770 1,794 1,888 2,279 2,300 2,721 2,792 3,256 2,770 3,311 3,483
21 Hungary 1,498 1,474 1,573 1,741 1,728 1,841 1,999 2,131 2,326 2,416 2,546 2,673 2,589 2,646 2,922 3,238
22 Lithuania 1,916 2,143 2,284 2,414 2,594 2,619 2,676 2,754 2,721 2,634 2,844 3,054 2,786 2,950 3,072 3,191
23 Poland 1,534 1,596 1,616 1,548 1,595 1,604 1,585 1,672 1,675 1,753 1,873 2,064 2,172 2,321 3,019 3,106
24 Spain 2,201 2,363 2,502 2,600 2,712 2,859 2,890 2,889 2,766 2,694 2,626 2,613 2,623 2,715 2,856 3,001
25 Slovakia 1,780 1,981 2,028 2,186 2,291 2,332 2,460 2,808 2,833 2,820 2,716 2,716 2,650 2,253 2,416 2,996
26 Russia 3,365 3,310 3,235 3,240 3,276 3,153 3,090 3,088 3,115 3,078 3,053 3,075 3,098 2,952 2,822 2,784
27 UAE 1,980 2,383 2,379
28 Bulgaria 1,223 1,262 1,309 1,356 1,480 1,515 1,604 1,482 1,613 1,541 1,684 1,822 1,977 2,237 2,125 2,343
29 Italy 1,215 1,236 1,406 1,501 1,573 1,614 1,713 1,736 1,781 1,849 1,931 1,956 2,078 2,204 2,314 2,307
30 Serbia 964 1,095 1,149 1,213 1,624 1,643 1,727 1,831 2,071 2,133 2,079 2,087
31 Croatia 1,315 1,605 1,308 1,323 1,407 1,542 1,601 1,646 1,587 1,557 1,527 1,437 1,504 1,851 1,868 1,921
32 Latvia 1,372 1,433 1,473 1,789 1,914 2,038 1,710 1,864 1,885 1,887 1,773 1,854 1,809 1,597 1,785 1,792
33 Tunisia 1,159 1,320 1,478 1,580 1,088 1,218 1,491 1,384 1,431 1,628 1,801 1,814 1,799 1,982 1,772
34 Georgia 566 1,059 1,280 1,307 1,307 1,464
35 China 667 712 857 932 1,079 1,200 864 903 958 1,014 1,066 1,089 1,151 1,197 1,225 1,307
36 Cyprus 491 574 660 714 752 748 801 820 1,064 1,017 1,036 1,065 1,009 1,051 1,196 1,256
37 Ukraine 1,479 1,459 1,432 1,350 1,332 1,258 1,231 1,162 1,024 1,006 1,037 994 988
38 Romania 956 973 1,072 897 896 935 940 974 791 891 923 904 876 912 891 882
39 Uruguay 274 481 549 614 632 635 643 661 679 691 696
40 Moldova 702 712 621 605 628 713 699 663 777 769 737 747 758 726 724 696
41 Egypt 636 442 437 497 492 517 539 675 673 689 677 687
42 Kazakhstan 405 375 347 369 386 612 737 799 777 694 666 667
43 Qatar 548 584 577
44 Kuwait 168 170 170 164 186 149 140 133 130 131 620 396 478 502 514
45 Uzbekistan 575 513 507 501 497 506 496 476
46 Bosnia 61 63 66 175 194 160 234 292 365 420 485 471
47 Oman 149 173 132 178 213 240 242 281
48 India 135 157 216 253
49 Indonesia 90 179 215 216
50 Iraq 371 381 402 416 441 70 66 65 106 111
51 Syria 91
52 South Africa 303 379 358 379 389 385 388 363 387 405 435 432 472 492 518
53 Turkey 492 504 577 621 714 751 811 890 982 1,100 1,173 1,161 1,212 1,255 1,379
54 Sri lanka 137 93 99 106 110 99 106
55 USA 4,911 4,708 3,718 3,782 3,758 3,912 4,072 3,867 4,027 3,991 4,091 4,205 4,268 4,248 4,412
56 Singapore 4,901 5,134 5,292 5,425 5,769 5,741 6,149 6,307 6,405 6,357 6,603 6,632 7,007 6,935 6,803
57 Switzerland 3,451 3,288 4,469 5,272 5,450
58 Senegal 260 275 370 361 564
59 Venezuela 95 105 121 146 163 187 182 200 233 296 364 273 249 300
60 Vietnam 679 679 708
World 1,207 1,282 1,411
61 Thailand 277 311 322 331 539 791 964 865 1,208 1,350
62 Albania 157
63 Philippines 71 80 78 82 84 187 106
64 Ecuador 50 71 65 103 118 141 180 281 351 399
65 Angola 47 19
66 Argentina 720 769 814 886 968 1,028 1,033 1,121 1,181 1,203 1,198 1,207 1,231 1,260 1,192
67 Australia 4,039 4,232 4,335 4,531
68 Bahrain 50 369
69 Bolivia 146 166
70 Brazil 496 545 580 589 603 619 656 698 738 788 838 888
71 Canada 3,901 4,082 4,238 4,313 4,588 4,712 4,451 4,649 4,780 4,627 4,623 4,542 4,523 4,370 4,326
72 Chile 337 358 289 320 353 391 335 427 455 493 493
73 Colombia 140 156 126 143 161 176 183 193 177 148 57 58 70 89 88
74 Costa rica 132 108 124 263 998 1,233 406 337 355 568 495 525 380
75 Iceland 6,617 7,262 7,976 7,230 7,443 7,970 6,981 5,648 5,888 6,131
76 Paraguay 81 86 72 77 50 168 152 183 121 135
77 Iran 713 748 712 738 697 679 825 1,475
78 Jordan 252 592 596
79 Kenya 57 231
80 Algeria 168 819
81 Malaysia 495 369 601 1,070 1,467 1,649 1,791 2,054 2,308 2,397
82 Mexico 323 378 400 326 335 327 368 312 344 248 252 260 281 315
83 Morocco 651 644 660 725 845 850 1,024 1,074
84 New Zealand 3,935 3,141 3,445 3,719 3,689 3,961 5,418 5,530
85 Nigeria 39
86 Pakistan 83 165 166 143 158 279 336
87 Panama 97 96 104 105 166 132 111 117 118 38 39
88 Zimbabwe 100